Kosovo never was part of Serbia grounded on international justice
By Shemsi Ajvazi
Specialist of Russian-Albanian relations and Russian politics.
Many publicist and analytic writings are lastly dedicated to the destruction of Yugoslavia, whereas there are scarce or not at all that speak for her formation. Since Kosovo during a short relative period regarding history was in the framework of this state, it is important to know how this state was formed, who created it and why and were justified the intentions for its formation?
If it is analyzed the historical period of this state, it would clearly follow that the Great Powers created Yugoslavia (The Serbian historians confirm this, like Ekmedjic and others) after the destruction of Austro-Hungarian Empire and the pullout of the Ottoman Empire from these regions. This was done for the purpose of integrating in an acceptable manner the parts which belonged before to Austro-Hungary, like: Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Hercegovina and Vojvodina as well as the part of Ottoman Empire, like Kosovo, Sandjak and Northern Macedonia in multinational state in other to avoid interethnic conflicts through establishing equality among the nations. But these intentions were not realized due to lack of sincerity on the part of Serbian government circles and her hegemonic politics toward the other peoples. Thus this international project totally failed. After the WWII also the Great Power for the same intentions supported the new federal project of Yugoslavia. This project was to an extent more successful than the previous one, but at last we witness the failure of this project too, simply because of the same hegemonic and chauvinistic politics of the Serbian elite towered the others.
The evidence for this period was intentionally taken from the works of Academy of Sciences of Soviet Union “The History of Yugoslavia”, published in Masco, 1963 in two volumes. This evidence is important, since no one could doubt them that ostensibly favor the Albanians, since it is known the attitude of the Russians toward the Albanians and what attitude they had toward the Serbs. But, moreover, the Academy of Sciences that published this work, was incapable of ignoring the historical facts, since it is the highest scientific institution and it is totally normal that preserves its authority.
After analyzing the work “The History of Yugoslavia” published by Russian Academy also another work of this institution as it is “The History of Diplomacy”, published in 1945 in Masco in three volumes, witnesses the same thing and it is completely made clear that Serbia never had international legitimacy over Kosovo. Therefore Serbian reliance on the facts of international justice is totally unfounded, it is the falsification of historical facts. Unfortunately many international circles take this as true this falsification ceaselessly repeated, which proves that a portion of international community applies double standards when dealing with Kosovo and the Albanians and do everything to stop the realization of the rights of this people.
To prove this observation more clearly, we are going to show the historical facts presented in both works we mentioned above:
Serbia was admitted as an independent state by the Great Powers based on decisions of the Congress of Berlin (1878), but this Serbia does not include even a palm of present Kosovo, as a matter of fact neither Presheva nor Bujanoc, and not even the Sandjak and also no other Albanian territories in Macedonia (This is seen also from the illustrating map of Serbia published in these works).
The internationally legalized Serbia is the only one that resulted from the Congress of Berlin.
During Balkan Wars of 1912 – 1913, Serbia occupied Kosovo, the Sandjak territories and the territories of Northern Macedonia, but was never able to legalize these territories as a part of the Serbian state.
In the period of 1912 – 1919 Kosovo was under Serbian, Bulgarian and Austro-Hungarian, but non of her invaders were able to legalize the right for Kosovo as part of their state. This period for Kosovo, therefore, based on historical facts, it is a period of her occupation and colonization with force, which is not proof for international right that it belongs to Serbia.
After the Congress of Berlin (1978) and until the Peace Conference of Paris in 1919 (when Yugoslavia was admitted as an independent state) there were neither international decisions, nor international conferences that would determine the fate of these territories. The Conference much talked of Ambassadors of London (1913), did not take any clear cut decisions, but they were preliminary decisions, because, as it is attested in the mentioned works, since it did not end and it was interrupted without final decisions. Moreover, its level also shows that (under the level of the Ambassadors) was under the low international level, and therefore it could not be taken as witness of international justice.
On the occasion of formation of Yugoslavia in 1919, the Great Powers, with the insistence of American President Woodrow Wilson, have asked the agreement of all the peoples that would make Yugoslavia. This fact proves that Yugoslavia, according to international norm of justice is a totally new state, therefore Serbia has no right to pretend on its inheritance. This was attested even lately, when the Yugoslav Federation was destroyed and all her constitutive parts were admitted as independent states, for which Kosovo has also the right based on international justice.
To prove what was said above, we are going to give without comments a few citations from the mentioned works of Russian Academy. Here is what it writes when talking about the Balkan Wars:
“The Alliance of Balkan Monarchies was supported by Russia, France and England in order to exploit it for selfish interests, partially in their war against Germany and Austro-Hungary (The History of Yugoslavia”, volume I, p. 641).
The intentions of Serbia in the Balkan wars are described as it follows: “The newspaper of the Serbian radical Bourgeois ‘Samouprava’ (self-rule) and others Serbian newspapers propagated that the war with Turkey is inevitable and in this occasion under the motto of liberation of the brothers from the Turkish yoke, were not present only intentions of liberations. The government nationalist circles and the Serbian press behind this motto saw their pillage expansionist intentions toward Albania and Macedonia… Great influence in Serbia had the nationalist intelligentcia and the chauvinist militarist elements” (ibid, 641).
“As a result of Balkan wars in Serbia grows the role of militarism and chauvinist circles. (ibid, p. 657).
And here is how is described the Serbian colonial politics after the invasion of Albanian territories: “All Serbian parties in power and those in the opposite support the military nationalist course of the Monarchy and the Radical party headed by N. Pasic. They approved the politics of Serbization realized by Serbian officers and the workers of the Kosovo region…, Northern Albania and Macedonia” (Ibid., p. 545).
This evidence could be taken as the basic testament for the international justice in order to judge that the period of 1912-1919 is the period of the invasion and the colonization and, therefore, it in no way gives to Serbia the right to have claims toward Kosovo as her territory. And also could be concluded that all other voices, despite Serbia, who often describe Kosovo as part of Serbia, asserting that Serbia is loosing Kosovo, are part of manipulation and politicizing of the strategic players of Great Powers and have no basis in the international right.
Therefore, Kosovo has a full right to be independent based on the principle of self-determination of the peoples as a universal principle of the Charter of the Unites Nations, but also on the bases of the international right. Therefore every condition or form of supervision that restricts the independence testifies the application of double standards toward Kosovo that are contrary to international right.
Translated into American English by E. Bilali